By the time a urologist is called, 37 percent of patients are injured.

Even the first attempt can cause injury.

Bleeding after blind catheter passage may be a superficial mucosal tear or a more serious injury. Did you notice the torn and flapping urethral mucosa? The urothelium is just 3 to 4 cell layer thick! Even a passage of a flexible cystoscope can cause a mucosal tear.  This video is the first and second pass with a flexible scope.

By the sixth attempt, injuries can be significant.

By the time the urologist is called, 37 percent of patients had adverse events.  

A prospective analysis of consultation for difficult urinary catheter insertion at tertiary care centres in Northern Alberta  This study examines the condition of how a patient presents when a urologist is called. Excluded were all patients who were successfully placed prior to needing the urologist, including those placements made by a urologic nurse.  Adverse events included: urosepsis, bladder perforation and urethral trauma.  Significant urethral injury as a result of catheterization attempts occurred in 32 percent.

Vision can changes these outcomes.

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